Now producing Biofungicide

I recently got placed in a reputed Biofungicide producer company at Uttarakhand as the General Manager of Quality Control and Production. We produce Trichoderma viride as the biofungicide which itself is a greenish fungi that suppresses growth of harmful crop fungi. With excessive use of various chemical fungicides, the crop lands have got barren and even the target fungi have become resistant to the chemicals. So, Scientists and Government are now encouraging the use of Biological control methods for such purposes. These methods are very ecofriendly and are harmless to Humans, Crops, Crop lands, other plants and animals. Awareness among the farmers needs to be spread about these methoda so that their use is encouraged among them.


Schedule for Upcoming Haridwar Mahakumbh Snaans (Baths)

A very grand event is about to start here at Haridwar. It is none other than the long awaited MAHAKUMBH which comes every 12 years at each place out of the four places in India. One of these places is Haridwar. Preparations have been going on for this grand event long since about a year. Now if you see Haridwar after long time, you will find that it has been transformed to a better city. Although people like us who live here have been long troubled due to this large scale transformation, but now when we see Haridwar, we think all those troubles have been banished. Each and every road has been constructed again, numerous huge water tanks have been placed all over the city, fabulous looking streetlights have been placed all over the city, new bridges have been made in uncountable number, numerous new ghats have been made all over to adjust the crowd, many other changes have been made such as temporary ISBT which I mentioned in one of the previous posts.

Today, I got my hands on the schedule of the Snans (baths). So, I thought why not provide it to others. So here it is –

14 January 2010 (Wednesday) – Makar Sakranti.

15 January 2010 (Friday) – Mauni Amavasya and Surya Grahan (Solar Eclypse).

20 January 2010 (Wednesday) – Basant Panchmi.

30 January 2010 (Saturday) – Maagh Purnima.

12 February 2010 (Friday) – MAHA SHIVRATRI – first shaahi snaan.

15 March 2010 (Monday) – SOMVATI AMAVASYA – Second shaahi snaan.

16 March 2010 (Tuesday) – Navsamvataarambh.

24 March 2010 (Wednesday) – Ram Navmi.

30 March 2010 (Tuesday) – Chaitra Purnima.

14 April 2010 (Wednesday) – MESH SANKRANTI BAISHAKHI – Main shaahi snaan.

28 April 2010 (Wednesday) – Baishakh Adhimas Purnima.

It should be noted that these are main days of bathing, but the days in between them are also for bathing. another important thing is that during the SHAAHI SNAANS, only the Akharas will have bath from 10 am till evening. general public will be allowed to bath only before and after that.

Chemical Methods of Sterilization and Disinfection

Ethylene oxide. This highly reactive gas (C2H4O) is flammable, toxic, and a
strong mucosal irritant. Ethylene oxide can be used for sterilization at low
temperatures (20–60 8C). The gas has a high penetration capacity and can
even get through some plastic foils. One drawback is that this gas cannot
kill dried microorganisms and requires a relative humidity level of 40–
90% in the sterilizing chamber. Ethylene oxide goes into solution in plastics,
rubber, and similar materials, therefore sterilized items must be allowed to
stand for a longer period to ensure complete desorption.

Aldehydes. Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most important aldehyde. It can be
used in a special apparatus for gas sterilization. Its main use, however, is in
disinfection. Formaldehyde is a water-soluble gas. Formalin is a 35% solution
of this gas inwater. Formaldehyde irritatesmucosa; skin contactmay result in
inflammations or allergic eczemas. Formaldehyde is a broad-spectrum ger-
micide for bacteria, fungi, and viruses. At higher concentrations, spores
are killed as well. This substance is used to disinfect surfaces and objects
in 0.5–5% solutions. In the past, it was commonly used in gaseous form to
disinfect the air inside rooms (5 g/m3). The mechanism of action of formal-
dehyde is based on protein denaturation.
Another aldehyde used for disinfection purposes is glutaraldehyde.

Alcohols. The types of alcohol used in disinfection are ethanol (80%), propanol
(60%), and isopropanol (70%). Alcohols are quite effective against bacteria and
fungi, less so against viruses. They do not kill bacterial spores. Due to their
rapid action and good skin penetration, the main areas of application of al-
cohols are surgical and hygienic disinfection of the skin and hands. One dis-
advantage is that their effect is not long-lasting (no depot effect). Alcohols
denature proteins.

Phenols. Lister was the first to use phenol (carbolic acid) in medical applica-
tions. Today, phenol derivatives substituted with organic groups and/or halo-
gens (alkylated, arylated, and halogenated phenols), are widely used. One
common feature of phenolic substances is their weak performance against
spores and viruses. Phenols denature proteins. They bind to organicmaterials
to a moderate degree only, making them suitable for disinfection of excreted

Halogens. Chlorine, iodine, and derivatives of these halogens are suitable for
use as disinfectants. Chlorine and iodine show a generalized microbicidal ef-
fect and also kill spores.
Chlorine denatures proteins by binding to free amino groups; hypochlo-
rous acid (HOCl), on the other hand, is produced in aqueous solutions, then

disintegrates into HCl and 1/2 O2 and thus acts as a powerful oxidant. Chlorine
is used to disinfect drinkingwater and swimming-poolwater (up to 0.5mg/l).
Calcium hypochlorite (chlorinated lime) can be used in nonspecific disinfec-
tion of excretions. Chloramines are organic chlorine compounds that split off
chlorine in aqueous solutions. They are used in cleaning and washing pro-
ducts and to disinfect excretions.
Iodine has qualities similar to those of chlorine. Themost important iodine
preparations are the solutions of iodine and potassiumiodide in alcohol (tinc-
ture of iodine) used to disinfect skin and small wounds. Iodophores are com-
plexes of iodine and surfactants (e.g., polyvinyl pyrrolidone). While iodo-
phores are less irritant to the skin than pure iodine, they are also less effective
as germicides.

Oxidants. This group includes ozone, hydrogen peroxide, potassiumperman-
ganate, and peracetic acid. Their relevant chemical activity is based on the
splitting off of oxygen. Most are used as mild antiseptics to disinfect mucosa,
skin, or wounds.

Surfactants. These substances (also known as surface-active agents, tensides,
or detergents) include anionic, cationic, amphoteric, and nonionic detergent
compounds, of which the cationic and amphoteric types are the most effec-
tive (Fig. 1.8).
The bactericidal effect of these substances is onlymoderate. They have no
effect at all on tuberculosis bacteria (with the exception of amphotensides),
spores, or nonencapsulated viruses. Their efficacy is good against Gram-pos-
itive bacteria, but less so against Gram-negative rods. Their advantages in-
clude low toxicity levels, lack of odor, good skin tolerance, and a cleaning ef-

Temporary Bridge for Temporary ISBT at Haridwar for 2010 Mahakumbh

Ongoing Construction of the Temporary BridgeAs I was going to the Daksha temple today, I saw this construction going on for the temporary bridge for temporary ISBT at Kankhal, Haridwar for the upcoming Mahakumbh 2010. It will help in the diversion of the buses for Bijnor and following cities. Its nice to see that work is being done for improvement of city. Hope there will be a permanent ISBT soon.

Bought new Canon Powershot A480

Today, I bought a Canon powershot A480 camera, after waiting for nearly one year. I bought it from Kantika Digital Colour lab, Haridwar.My camera box and the free hybrio charger and two rechargable batteries with it

Physical Methods of Sterilization and Disinfection

The application of heat is a simple, cheap and effective method of killing
pathogens. Methods of heat application vary according to the specific appli-
& Pasteurization. This is the antimicrobial treatment used for foods in li-
quid form (milk):
— Low-temperature pasteurization: 61.5 8C, 30 minutes; 71 8C, 15 seconds.
— High-temperature pasteurization: brief (seconds) of exposure to 80–85 8C
in continuous operation.
— Uperization: heating to 150 8C for 2.5 seconds in a pressurized container
using steam injection.
& Disinfection. Application of temperatures below what would be required
for sterilization. Important: boiling medical instruments, needles, syringes,
etc. does not constitute sterilization! Many bacterial spores are not killed
by this method.
& Dry heat sterilization. The guideline values for hot-air sterilizers are as
follows: 180 8C for 30minutes,160 8C for 120minutes,whereby the objects to
be sterilized must themselves reach these temperatures for the entire pre-
scribed period.
& Moist heat sterilization. Autoclaves charged with saturated, pressurized
steam are used for this purpose:
— 121 8C, 15 minutes, one atmosphere of pressure (total: 202 kPa).
— 134 8C, three minutes, two atmospheres of pressure (total: 303 kPa).
In practical operation, the heating and equalibriating heatup and equalizing
times must be added to these, i.e., the time required for the temperature in
the most inaccessible part of the item(s) to be sterilized to reach sterilization
level.When sterilizing liquids, a cooling time is also required to avoid boiling
point retardation.

The significant heat energy content of steam, which is transferred to the
cooler sterilization itemswhen the steamcondenses on them, explainswhy it
is such an effective pathogen killer. In addition, the proteins of microorgan-
isms are much more readily denatured in a moist environment than under
dry conditions.

& Nonionizing radiation. Ultra-violet (UV) rays (280–200 nm) are a type of
nonionizing radiation that is rapidly absorbed by a variety of materials. UV
rays are therefore used only to reduce airborne pathogen counts (surgical
theaters, filling equipment) and for disinfection of smooth surfaces.
& Ionizing radiation. Two types are used:
— Gamma radiation consists of electromagnetic waves produced by nuclear
disintegration (e.g., of radioisotope 60Co).
— Corpuscular radiation consists of electrons produced in generators and
accelerated to raise their energy level.
Radiosterilization equipment is expensive. On a large scale, such systems are
used only to sterilize bandages, suture material, plastic medical items, and
heat-sensitive pharmaceuticals. The required dose depends on the level of
product contamination (bioburden) and on how sensitive the contaminating
microbes are to the radiation. As a rule, a dose of 2.5 !104 Gy (Gray) is con-
sidered sufficient.
One Gy is defined as absorption of the energy quantum one joule (J)
per kg.

Liquids and gases can also be sterilized by filtration. Most of the available
filters catch only bacteria and fungi, but with ultrafine filters viruses and
even large molecules can be filtered out as well. With membrane filters, re-
tention takes place through small pores. The best-known type is the mem-
brane filtermade of organic colloids (e.g., cellulose ester). Thesematerials can
be processed to produce thin filter layers with gauged and calibrated pore
sizes. In conventional depth filters, liquids are put through a layer of fibrous
material (e.g., asbestos). The effectiveness of this type of filter is due largely
to the principle of adsorption. Because of possible toxic side effects, they are
now practically obsolete.

Simple Influenza test is not reliable for Swine flu

The experts and doctors dealing with swine flu are emphasizing that the influenza test is not at all reliable for the swine flu virus H1N1. There are some cases where the patient had swine flu, but the influenza test was negative.
The swine flu virus itself has mutated several times by now. So, it is being very difficult to diagnose the problem and that too with Influenza test.